Fraser Trevor Fraser Trevor Author
Title: Relapse is an instance of being in some important way unable to take responsibility for self.
Author: Fraser Trevor
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 Addiction can be seen as a pattern of behaviour that contravenes attempts to take responsibility for the self . Two 'constituents or ...
 Addiction can be seen as a pattern of behaviour that contravenes attempts to take responsibility for the self . Two 'constituents or elements' as instrumental in one's responsibility for self: evaluative self-reflection and behavioural self-control . In this picture, addicts may have some breakdown in behavioural self-control (or impulse control).  Their are similarities between compulsion and addiction but doubts the explanatory status that other writers have given to craving. "Attribution of insatiability is not in general a veridical way in which to picture the impulse or motivation behind either a general addictive pattern or the particular stage of relapse, although it does depict certain individual cases. Rather, we can focus on the relapsing stage of the typical "clinical coalface case of addiction" . Relapse is important  because it highlights the addict's lack of self responsibility, "It is difficult to explain how something that is negatively evaluated or believed by the agent to be harmful retains a grip on behaviour" . Relapse is an instance of being in some important way unable to take responsibility for self.
 Self-responsible persons as historical beings, operating within a framework of past and future "projects, aspirations and goals" , and it is from this definition that he forms his idea of selfhood. Significantly he asserts that, "Self-responsible people care about the future" . Addicts are neither completely rational nor entirely irrational, but they may have some breakdown in their ability to self-reflect, to see themselves as a historically continuous being. The impulse to consume may be "life-defining for an addict" . Like Ross et al. (2008),  neurological models, specifically non-human models, cannot adequately explain this particular form of break-down. Addicts ought to know the risks of using, so why do they relapse? But whereas Ross et al. try to integrate brain science and behavioural economics to explain this,  "It requires also a metaphysical assumption about persons" . The idea of persons as bearers of histories and biographies is widespread in the literature on narrative selfhood but we do not find it particularly illuminating. And it raises normative questions : How engaged in our history and future should persons be? Is it enough to care about the medium term or must I have clear projects for every stage of my future life? and what if addicts do care about the future but find themselves unable to prevent a relapse?  addicts do appear to suffer from a "deficit of rational resolve" The identification with the substance becomes the defining characteristic. The labeling of the individual in itself may be a contributory factor in relapse which has the capacity to become a self fulfilling prophesy. 

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