www.dreamwarriorrecovery.com

www.dreamwarriorrecovery.com Large Scale Recovery website with all the latest news, views and opinions over 5000 separate historical articles. Meditation,Spirituality. The fellowships has helped millions to stop drinking, drugging which is a vital step for everyone on the spiritual path, but its inherent limits as a program prevent its members from becoming fully recovered.

 

Fraser Trevor Fraser Trevor Author
Title: Cocaine produces dopamine buildup wherever the brain has dopamine transporters returning to a place where one has taken cocaine or merely seeing images of cocaine-related paraphernalia triggers emotionally loaded memories and desire to repeat the experience.
Author: Fraser Trevor
Rating 5 of 5 Des:
Cocaine produces dopamine buildup wherever the brain has dopamine transporters. However, its ability to produce pleasure and euphoria, loss ...

Cocaine produces dopamine buildup wherever the brain has dopamine transporters. However, its ability to produce pleasure and euphoria, loss of control, and compulsive responses to drug-related cues can all be traced to its impact on the set of interconnected regions in the front part of the brain that make up the limbic system (Hyman and Malenka, 2001; Kalivas and McFarland, 2003; Koob, Sanna, and Bloom, 1998; Nestler, 2001). Dopamine-responsive cells are highly concentrated in this system, which controls emotional responses and links them with memories.

One particular part of the limbic system, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), seems to be the most important site of the cocaine high. When stimulated by dopamine, cells in the NAc produce feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. The natural function of this response is to help keep us focused on activities that promote the basic biological goals of survival and reproduction. When a thirsty person drinks or someone has an orgasm, for example, dopaminergic cells flood the NAc with dopamine molecules. The receiving cells’ response makes us feel good and want to repeat the activity and reexperience that pleasure.

By artificially causing a buildup of dopamine in the NAc, as described above, cocaine yields enormously powerful feelings of pleasure. The amount of dopamine connecting to receptors in the NAc after a dose of cocaine can exceed the amounts associated with natural activities, producing pleasure greater than that which follows thirst-quenching or sex. In fact, some laboratory animals, if given a choice, will ignore food and keep taking cocaine until they starve.

The limbic system also includes important memory centers, located in regions called the hippocampus and amygdala. These memory centers help us remember what we did that led to the pleasures associated with dopamine release in the NAc—for example, where we found water and how we attracted a mate. When someone experiences a cocaine high, these regions imprint memories of the intense pleasure as well as the people, places, and things associated with the drug. From then on, returning to a place where one has taken cocaine or merely seeing images of cocaine-related paraphernalia triggers emotionally loaded memories and desire to repeat the experience. Scientists believe that repeated cocaine exposure, with its associated dopamine jolts, alters these cells in ways that eventually convert conscious memory and desire into a near-compulsion to respond to cues by seeking and taking the drug.

A third limbic region, the frontal cortex, is where the brain integrates information and weighs different courses of action. The frontal cortex acts as a brake on the other regions of the limbic system when we decide to forgo a pleasure in order to avoid its negative consequences. Activity here can help a nonaddicted person heed the disastrous prognosis of continued cocaine abuse and suppress drug-taking urges emanating from the NAc, hippocampus, and amygdala. Once someone becomes addicted, however, the frontal cortex becomes impaired and less likely to prevail over the urges (Nestler and Malenka, 2004; Volkow, Fowler, and Wang, 2003).

Reactions:

Dream Warrior Solutions

Post a comment

 
Top