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Fraser Trevor Fraser Trevor Author
Title: marked abnormalities in cerebral glucose metabolism in several brain areas were noted in cocaine/polydrug abusers as compared to normal individuals
Author: Fraser Trevor
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English: Glucose metabolism and various forms of it in the process. Glucose-containing compounds are digested and taken up by the body in...
English: Glucose metabolism and various forms ...
English: Glucose metabolism and various forms of it in the process. Glucose-containing compounds are digested and taken up by the body in the intestines, including starch, glycogen, disaccharides and as monosaccharide. Glucose is stored in mainly the liver and muscles as glycogen. It is distributed and utilized in tissues as free glucose. Model: Mikael Häggström. To discuss image, please see Template talk:Häggström diagrams (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

marked abnormalities in cerebral glucose metabolism in
several brain areas were noted in cocaine/polydrug abusers as
compared to normal individuals, with variable direction of metabolic
changes dependent on the stage of cocaine use, withdrawal, or
abstinence. London and colleagues (1990, this volume) showed that
intravenous (IV) injections of cocaine in human volunteers globally
reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia,
hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain, and that this metabolic
decrease was temporally correlated with euphoria. The acute effect of
IV cocaine contrasted with marked increases of metabolic activity in
orbitofrontal cortical regions and basal ganglia, measured during
early phase of cocaine abstinence (1to 3 weeks) (Flowers et al. 1994;
Volkow et al. 1991). The protracted period of cocaine abstinence was
characterized by decreased metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex,
particularly in the left hemisphere (Volkow et al. 1992a), and was
accompanied by impaired cerebral blood flow that persisted for at
least 3 to 6 months after detoxi-fication from cocaine (Strickland et
al. 1993; Volkow et al. 1988). London and colleagues (this volume)
demonstrated that polydrug abusers in early stages of cocaine
withdrawal had statistically decreased glucose metabo-lism in visual
cortex when measured in absolute values; when values were
normalized for global glucose metabolism, a relative increase in
metabo-lism was noticed in the orbitofrontal area. The dynamics of
metabolic changes associated with cocaine withdrawal and abstinence
vary for different brain regions (Flowers et al. 1994) and may, to a
certain degree, be correlated with cocaine craving (Grant et al. 1994).

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